# Antennas and Wave Propagation

 Course Code : ULZ0286 Author : uLektz University : General for All University Regulation : 2017 Categories : Electronics & Communication Format : ePUB3 (DRM Protected) Type : eBook

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Description :Antennas and Wave Propagation of ULZ0286 covers the latest syllabus prescribed by General for All University for regulation 2017. Author: uLektz, Published by uLektz Learning Solutions Private Limited.

Note : No printed book. Only ebook. Access eBook using uLektz apps for Android, iOS and Windows Desktop PC.

##### Topics
###### UNIT I ANTENNA FUNDAMENTALS

1.1 Antenna Fundamentals: Introduction, Radiation Mechanism – single wire, 2 wire, dipoles, Current Distribution on a thin wire antenna

1.2 Antenna Parameters - Radiation Patterns, Patterns in Principal Planes, Main Lobe and Side Lobes, Beam widths, Polarization, Beam Area, Radiation Intensity, Beam Efficiency, Directivity, Gain and Resolution

1.3 Antenna Apertures, Aperture Efficiency, Effective Height, illustrated Problems

###### UNIT II THIN LINEAR WIRE ANTENNAS

2.1 Thin Linear Wire Antennas: Retarded Potentials, Radiation from Small Electric Dipole

2.2 Quarter wave Monopole and Half wave Dipole – Current Distributions, Evaluation of Field Components

2.3 Power Radiated, Radiation Resistance, Beamwidths, Directivity, Effective Area and Effective Height

2.4 Natural current distributions, fields and patterns of Thin Linear Center-fed Antennas of different lengths, Radiation Resistance at a point which is not current maximum

2.5 Antenna Theorems – Applicability and Proofs for equivalence of directional characteristics

2.6 Loop Antennas: Small Loops - Field Components, Comparison of far fields of small loop and short dipole, Concept of short magnetic dipole, D and Rr relations for small loops

###### UNIT III ANTENNA ARRAYS

3.1 Antenna Arrays : 2 element arrays – different cases, Principle of Pattern Multiplication

3.2 N element Uniform Linear Arrays – Broadside, Endfire Arrays, EFA with Increased Directivity, Derivation of their characteristics and comparison

3.3 Concept of Scanning Arrays. Directivity Relations (no derivations). Related Problems

3.4 Binomial Arrays, Effects of Uniform and Non-uniform Amplitude Distributions, Design Relations

3.5 Arrays with Parasitic Elements, Yagi-Uda Arrays, Folded Dipoles and their characteristics

4.1 Non-Resonant Radiators : Introduction, Traveling wave radiators – basic concepts, Long wire antennas – field strength calculations and patterns

4.2 Microstrip Antennas-Introduction, Features, Advantages and Limitations, Rectangular Patch Antennas –Geometry and Parameters, Impact of different parameters on characteristics

4.3 Broadband Antennas: Helical Antennas – Significance, Geometry, basic properties; Design considerations for monofilar helical antennas in Axial Mode and Normal Modes (Qualitative Treatment)

###### UNIT V VHF, UHF AND MICROWAVE ANTENNAS

5.1 VHF, UHF And Microwave Antennas : Reflector Antennas : Flat Sheet and Corner Reflectors

5.2 Paraboloidal Reflectors – Geometry, characteristics, types of feeds, F/D Ratio, Spill Over, Back Lobes, Aperture Blocking, Off-set Feeds, Cassegrain Feeds

5.3 Horn Antennas – Types, Optimum Horns, Design Characteristics of Pyramidal Horns; Lens Antennas – Geometry, Features, Dielectric Lenses and Zoning, Applications

5.4 Antenna Measurements – Patterns Required, Set Up, Distance Criterion, Directivity and Gain Measurements (Comparison, Absolute and 3-Antenna Methods)

###### UNIT VI WAVE PROPAGATION

6.1 Wave Propagation : Concepts of Propagation – frequency ranges and types of propagations

6.2 Ground Wave Propagation–Characteristics, Parameters, Wave Tilt, Flat and Spherical Earth Considerations

6.3 Sky Wave Propagation – Formation of Ionospheric Layers and their Characteristics

6.4 Mechanism of Reflection and Refraction, Critical Frequency, MUF and Skip Distance – Calculations for flat and spherical earth cases, Optimum Frequency, LUHF, Virtual Height

6.5 Ionospheric Abnormalities, Ionospheric Absorption. Fundamental Equation for Free-Space Propagation, Basic Transmission Loss Calculations

6.6 Space Wave Propagation – Mechanism, LOS and Radio Horizon

6.7 Tropospheric Wave Propagation – Radius of Curvature of path, Effective Earth’s Radius, Effect of Earth’s Curvature, Field Strength Calculations

6.8 M-curves and Duct Propagation, Tropospheric Scattering