# Thermodynamics(Air Standard Cycles)

 Course Code : ULZ0068 Author : uLektz University : General for All University Regulation : 2017 Categories : Mechanical Format : ePUB3 (DRM Protected) Type : eBook

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Description :Thermodynamics(Air Standard Cycles) of ULZ0068 covers the latest syllabus prescribed by General for All University for regulation 2017. Author: uLektz, Published by uLektz Learning Solutions Private Limited.

Note : No printed book. Only ebook. Access eBook using uLektz apps for Android, iOS and Windows Desktop PC.

##### Topics
###### UNIT – I INTRODUCTION:BASIC CONCEPTS

1.1 Basic Concepts: System, Control Volume, Surrounding, Boundaries, Universe, Types of Systems, Macroscopic and Microscopic viewpoints, Concept of Continuum

1.2 Thermodynamic Equilibrium, State, Property, Process

1.3 Cycle – Reversibility – Quasi – static Process, Irreversible Process, Causes of Irreversibility

1.4 Energy in State and in Transition, Types

1.5 Work and Heat, Point and Path function

1.6 Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics, Concept of Temperature

1.7 Principles of Thermometry, Reference Points, Constant Volume gas Thermometer, Scales of Temperature, Ideal Gas Scale – PMM I

###### UNIT – II FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS & APPLICATION OF STEADY FLOW ENERGY EQUATION

2.1 Joule’s Experiments

2.2 First law of Thermodynamics – Corollaries, First law applied to a Process – applied to a flow system – Steady Flow Energy Equation

2.3 Throttling and free expansion processes – deviations from perfect gas model

2.4 Van der Waal’s equation of state, Compressibility charts, Variable specific heats, Gas tables

###### UNIT – III SECOND & THIRD LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS

3.1 Limitations of the First Law, Thermal Reservoir, Heat Engine, Heat pump, Parameters of performance

3.2 Second Law of Thermodynamics, Kelvin-Planck and Clausius Statements and their Equivalence/Corollaries, PMM of Second kind

3.3 Carnot’s principle, Carnot cycle and its specialties

3.4 Thermodynamic scale of Temperature, Clausius Inequality, Entropy, Principle of Entropy Increase

3.5 Energy Equation

3.6 Availability and Irreversibility, Thermodynamic Potentials, Gibbs and Helmholtz Functions, Maxwell Relations

3.7 Elementary Treatment of the Third Law of Thermodynamics

###### UNIT – IV PROPERTY DIGRAMS

4.1 Pure Substances, p-V-T- surfaces, T-S and h-s diagrams, Mollier Charts

4.2 Phase Transformations – Triple point at critical state properties during change of phase, Dryness Fraction

4.3 Clausius – Clapeyron Equation, Property tables, Mollier charts –Various Thermodynamic processes and energy Transfer, Steam Calorimetry

###### UNIT – V PSYCHROMETRIC CHART:INTRODUCTION & ITS APPLICATIONS

5.1 Mixtures of perfect Gases - Mole Fraction, Mass friction Gravimetric and volumetric Analysis

5.2 Dalton’s Law of partial pressure, Avogadro’s Laws of additive volumes – Mole fraction, Volume fraction and partial pressure

5.3 Equivalent Gas constant And Molecular Internal Energy, Enthalpy, Sp. Heats and Entropy of Mixture of perfect Gases and Vapour

5.4 Atmospheric air - Psychrometric Properties, Dry bulb Temperature, Wet Bulb Temperature, Dew point Temperature, Thermodynamic Wet Bulb Temperature, Specific Humidity, Relative Humidity, Saturated Air, Vapour pressure

5.5 Degree of saturation – Adiabatic Saturation, Carrier’s Equation – Psychrometric chart

###### UNIT – VI AIR STANDARD CYCLES

6.1 Power Cycles : Otto, Diesel, Dual Combustion cycles, Sterling Cycle, Atkinson Cycle, Ericcson Cycle, Lenoir Cycle, Description and representation on P–V and T-S diagram, Thermal Efficiency, Mean Effective Pressures on Air standard basis

6.2 Comparison of Cycles

6.3 Refrigeration Cycles : Brayton and Rankine cycles, Performance Evaluation – combined cycles

6.4 Bell- Coleman cycle, Vapour compression cycle, Performance Evaluation