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Chemistry Paper- I (O.U)

Chemistry Paper- I (O.U)

Published by SIA Publishers and Distributors (P) Ltd.

Course Code : B.Sc I-I (O.U)
Author : SIA PUBLISHERS
University : Osmania University
Regulation : 2019
Categories : Arts and Science
Format : ico_bookPDF (DRM Protected)
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UNIT-I

Inorganic Chemistry

1. Chemical Bonding

Ionic solids - lattice and solvation energy, solubility of ionic solids, Fajan’s rule, Polarity and

polarizability of ions. VSPER Theory - Common hybridization-sp, sp2, sp3, sp3d2 and sp3d3,

shapes of molecules. Molecular orbital theory: Shapes and sign convention of atomic orbitals.

Modes of bonds. Criteria for orbital overlap. LCAO concept. π and σ overlapping. Concept of

types of molecular orbitals- bonding, antibonding and non bonding. MOED of homonuclear

diatomics - H2, N2, O2

– , O2

2– , F2 (unhybridized diagrams only) and heteronuclear diatomics

CO, CN–, NO, NO+ and HF. Bond order, stability and magnetic properties.

2. P-Block Elements 1

Group - 13: Structure of diborane and higher Boranes (B4H10 and B5H9), Boron nitrogen

compounds (B3N3H6 and BN), Lewis acid nature of BX3.

Group - 14: Carbides-Classification - ionic, covalent, interstitial -. Structures and reactivity.

Industrial applications. Silicones - Classification - straight chain, cyclic and cross-linked.

Group - 15: Nitrides - Classification - ionic, covalent and interstitial. Reactivity - hydrolysis.

Reactions of hydrazine, hydroxyl amine, phosphazenes.

UNIT-II

Organic Chemistry

1. Structural Theory in Organic Chemistry

Bond polarization: Factors influencing the polarization of covalent bonds, electro negativity

– inductive effect. Application of inductive effect,

(a) Basicity of amines

(b) Acidity of carboxylic acids

(c) Stability of carbonium ions.

Resonance - Mesomeric effect, application to,

(a) Acidity of phenol.

(b) acidity of carboxylic acids and basicity of anilines. Stability of carbocations, carbanions

and free radicals. Hyper conjugation and its application to stability of carbonium ions,

free radicals and alkenes.

2. Acyclic Hydrocarbons

Alkanes: Methods of preparation: From Grignard reagent, Kolbe synthesis. Chemical reactivity - inert

nature, free radical substitution, Halogenation example- reactivity, selectivity and orientation.

Alkenes: Preparation of alkenes (with mechanism)

(a) By dehydration of alcohols

(b) Dehydrohalogenation of alkyl halides

(c) By dehalogenation of 1,2 dihalides.

Zaitsev’s rule. Properties: Anti-addition of halogen and its mechanism. Adding of HX, Markonikov’s rule,

addition of H2O, HOX, H2SO4 with mechanism and addition of HBr in the presence of peroxide (anti –

Markonikov’s addition). Oxidation (cis – additions) – hydroxylation by KMnO4, OsO4, anti addition- peracids

(via epoxidation), hydroboration, ozonolysis – location of double bond, Dienes – Types of dienes, reactions

of conjugated dienes – 1, 2 and 1, 4 addition of HBr to 1, 3–butadiene and Diels – Alder reaction.

Alkynes: Preparation by dehydrohalogenation of vicinal dihalides, dehalogenation of tetrahalides.

Physical Properties: Chemical reactivity – electrophilic addition of X2, HX, H2O (tautomerism), Oxidation

(formation of enediol, 1, 2 diones and carboxylic acids) and reduction (Metal-ammonia reduction, catalytic

hydrogenation).

3. Aromatic Hydrocarbons

Introduction to aromaticity: Huckel’s rule – Benzene, Naphthalene and Anthracene. Reactions - General

mechanism of electrophilic substitution, mechanism of nitration, sulphonation and halogenation, Friendel

Craft’s alkylation and acylation. Orientation of aromatic substitution - Definition of ortho, para, and meta

directing groups. Ring activating and deactivating groups with examples. Orientation

(i) Activating group: Amino, methoxy and alkyl groups.

(ii) Deactivating groups - nitro, nitrile, carbonyl, carboxylic acid, sulphonic acid and halo groups.

UNIT-III

1. Atomic structure and elementary quantum mechanics

Block body radiation, heat capacities of solids, Rayleigh Jeans law, Planck’s radiation law, photoelectric

effect, Limitations of classical mechanics, Compton effect, de Broglie’s hypothesis. Heisenberg’s

uncertainty principle.

2. Gaseous State

Deviation of real gases from ideal behavior. van der Waals equation of state. Critical phenomenon. PV

isotherms of real gases, continuity of state. Andrew’s isotherms of CO2. The van der Waal’s equation and

critical state. Derivation of relationship between critical constants and van der Waal’s constants. The law

of corresponding states, reduced equation of states. Joule Thomson effect and inversion temperature

of a gas

Note : Chemistry Paper- I (OU), B.Sc I-I (O.U)

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